The ship was delivered still in custody of VMF, the Soviet naval establishment. In 2003, MARAD thought it had a solution in Able UK, a shipbreaker in Great Britain which would scrap old US Navy warships in a manner safer and cleaner than in Asia but cheaper than the USA. Its deck gun is described as being 5" rather than 4", probably for wartime propaganda reasons. Cast iron was found in anchors, motor housings, and so on. Then a tow had to be arranged, the ship had to be cut up, the metal sorted, and a steel consumer found to buy it. It has a dredged channel leading to breaking basins, and is just down the coast from MARAD’s Beaumont, TX anchorage and the US Navy’s former mothball site at Orange, TX. The Pentagon couldn’t care less what happened to the obsolete WWII ship. It was later upgraded with RIM-72 surface-to-air missiles. From the 1960s onwards, Brownsville has been synonymous with scrapping WWII warships. The wreck was plundered in 2014.) Regarding fuel aboard, immediately (1946 – 1948) after WWII, mothballed warships were completely defueled. Die John W. Brown wurde unter anderem mit Hilfe der National Maritime Historical Society hergerichtet und erhalten. This Liberty Ship was scrapped in Taiwan in 1967.). In March 1993, the Defense Reutilization & Marketing Service put the ship up for auction with an appraised scrap value of $300,000. It bought the 100 ships, 15 of which were crewed by Greek merchant marine crews and flying the Greek flag from 1944 and sold them the same day to Greek shipowners. Middle school principal Lin Yaolong in Kaohsiung now owns it and uses it at his school.) The ship was scrapped in Taiwan in 1974. At some point either no schematics or the wrong schematics (the final SCB-125 Essex configuration was different than a WWII Essex) were provided, and the workers had no idea what much of the ship even was. Auctions could be reserved, meaning that if a confidential minimum was not achieved the government voided all bids, or unreserved meaning the highest bid won no matter what. Seawitch, unsurprisingly, went bankrupt. Hope this helps. Change ), scrapping the warships of WWII | Dave Loves History. Die National Liberty Ship Memorial, Inc. (gegründet 1978) war auf der Suche nach einem im Original erhaltenen Liberty-Schiff, das restauriert und für die Nachwelt erhalten werden sollte. ), (The ex-USS Sphinx (ARL-24), a WWII repair ship, being scrapped in 2007 by Bay Bridge Enterprises. An anonymous whistleblower said that acetylene cutting was done with firehoses not even turned on, let alone manned as required by OSHA. ), (A Mk15 triple 8″ gun turret yanked off a WWII cruiser by Zidell during the 1970s. The keel was laid in mid-1944 as the Saipan battle was being fought in the Pacific and as the allies were pushing out of Normandy in Europe. This section of List of Liberty ships is a sortable list of Liberty ships—cargo ships built in the United States during World War II—with names beginning with M through R. See also: List of Liberty ships: A-F List of Liberty ships: G-Je List of Liberty ships: Je-L List of Liberty ships: S-Z Project Liberty Ship officials figure it would have cost about $15,000 a month to rent the Canton pier, and they're expecting to spend about that much, … LSTs were also convertible. Besides lagging, the forms of shipboard WWII asbestos were myriad. The price equates to $464,500 in 2020 dollars. Acquisition petitioned the government to waive the “no export” clause and allow the ex-USS Coral Sea to be scrapped in Alang, India. Project Liberty Ship website. Taiwan had no blueprints or tech manuals for the Casa Grande class but by pooling the combined knowledge of other WWII American types in ROCN use, the “new” ROCS Chung Chen was not only serviceable but highly successful. It was another hassle and expense.). Notre Dame Victory 1945 – 1951 Challenges 2016, 7, 20 3 of 8 An Investigation requested by the U.S. Coast Guard showed that the fracture originated at a defective weld. In November 1942, one of Kaiser's Richmond yards built a Liberty Ship (Robert E. Peary) in 4 days, 15 hours, and 29 minutes as a publicity stunt. During WWII this carrier had been hit by a kamikaze. Apparently at the time the US government did not allow Liberty ships to be sold to foreign shipowners. This alternated like a see-saw, with the ship becoming progressively lighter and draught continuing to decline. The first four hulks, two of them WWII oilers, arrived in late 2003. Thanks again for the article, and I agree it fits in perfectly well into the theme of the website and its stories. The Liberty's maximum speed was 11 knots, making her easy prey for submarines, so early in 1942 designs for a 15 knot ship were begun. The Liberty ships SS Paul Buck, SS Edwin Joseph O'Hara, and SS Richard Moczkowski, and the destroyer escort USS Kenneth M. Willett (DE-354) were named in honor of crew members of the Stephen Hopkins, and SS Stephen Hopkins II in honor of the ship itself. There is almost certainly lead in the paint. Item Naam: WW2 Liberty Ship Jeremiah O'Brien Schaal: 1/350 Lengte: 384 mm Breedte: 50mm Aantal onderdelen: 268 Onderdelen: 5 gietbomen plus lagere romp, de bovenste romp en waterlijnbodem Verfschema: 1944 tijdens de invasie in Normandië Ofwel als waterlijn-versie of … A Liberty ship is featured in the Humphrey Bogart 1943 film Action in the North Atlantic. Vor dem Hintergrund des anfangs erfolgreichen deutschen U-Boot-Kriegs des Zweiten Weltkriegs kam es auf britischer Seite rasch zu einer gefährlichen Verknappung von Frachtraum, die von der überwiegend im Kriegsschiffbau beschäftigten Werftindustrie des Vereinigten Königreichs nicht alleine aufgefangen werden konnte. In 1995 N.R. In the late 1940s any US Navy auxiliary and some small (less than 1,500t) surface combatants were auctioned off for scrap by MARAD. WAA also sold off the government’s wartime equity stakes in commercial shipyards. These vessels became widely known as the Liberty-type ships. When Saigon fell in 1975, communist Vietnam inherited intact a flotilla of ex-American WWII warships from the defunct South Vietnamese navy. Naturally the bigger the ship, the bigger the amount of paint aboard; and during the 1990s this was one of the reasons the government had an especially hard time peddling WWII-built aircraft carriers and oilers. ), (Late 1960s ad for Victory Ship parts. (The quarterdeck bell – not the main ship’s bell – of USS Shangri-La. Zidell scrapped hundreds of WWII warships. By the early 1980s the gig was largely up and the few Libertys, Victorys, and T2s still in commerce were sold as scrap. Liberty-Frachter – auch als Liberty-Schiffe bezeichnet – waren Stückgutschiffe des Typs EC2-S-C1. A decade or two earlier, the government could have made decent money auctioning the two WWII salvage ships. Good stainless steel will be in the galley behind the bulkhead. The government was only interested in dollars, and ex-US Navy vessels of WWII began to be dismantled abroad where margins were bigger and shipbreakers bid higher. No “reuse prohibited” clause was in the contract, as nobody ever thought this would happen. It was purchased by India and completed to their specifications. During the 1960s and 1970s they were sent to scrapping and the last stragglers to go left in the early 1980s, by which time only one was still realistically capable of reactivation. The “red lead” primer which was used in the 1940s typically was mixed 800,000ppm which is naturally very high. One observed a section of flight deck being torched off and allowed to plop into the hangar deck (this act itself unsafe) which caused a huge dust cloud of likely-asbestos containing material to puff out and then settle into the harbor. When the decision to scrap a WWII warship was made, not everything need be cut up. (WWII gun barrels made good HMS, being of exceptionally high-quality steel and often with elevated nickel and chromium content. List of Liberty ships (G–Je) List of Liberty ships (Je–L) List of Liberty ships … Its fireproof qualities have been known for centuries. As the number of cheap WWII hulks still around declined, a reprieve came from scrapping supertankers damaged in the Iran-Iraq War but this was only temporary. The final major WWII merchant type was the T2 tanker, basically a liquid cousin of the solid cargo Liberty Ship. Der Ocean-Typ bildete die Grundlage zur Entwicklung des Liberty-Frachters durch das New Yorker Schiffsingenieurbüro Gibbs & Cox. Of these three HMS Revenge was obsolete and HMS Rodney was in poor mechanical condition by the end of WWII. In 1999 -2000, a “Cost +” program was launched. Resold in 1995 to Pegasus Inc., steel price movements (along with the huge amount of asbestos aboard) bankrupted that company mid-job in 1997. An unrelated scrapping of a 1950s-vintage minesweeper resulted in a net loss to Seawitch, exacerbating the cash flow issue. The General Motors 12-567A diesel engine was used on the WWII US Navy’s 180′ patrol ships, Achelous class repair ships, and the big LSTs. The decision taken for their construction was a result of the on-going losses of Allied Forces’ ships operating in the Atlantic convoys, carrying the valuable supplies needed for the successful outcome of the war. Putting aside political opinions, this might actually seem to be more streamlined than the American or British models. After V-J Day scrap steel was $36/t ($519 in 2020 dollars) climbing to $40.50/t ($584) by 1948. Der Rumpf des Schiffs hatte sehr einfache Formen (ein darauf basierender Spitzname war beispielsweise bathtub, auf deutsch Badewanne) und es gab auf den Werften keine Schwierigkeiten, die Schiffsplatten zu formen und zusammenzusetzen. A major element of America’s wartime merchant fleet was a huge class of vessels known as the Liberty Ships. The American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is a private non-profit group which publishes industry standards that are more or less accepted as official in the USA. During the bidding, N.R. (During WWII USS Clamp (ARS-33) had driven off five Japanese air attacks in one day. Here the hull rides high pierside with the superstructure and upper decks removed.). 2101). Zidell Explorations of Portland, OR was started several months after WWII ended. Liberty ships were nicknamed … (The ex-HMS Duke Of York being scrapped in 1958. The WWII Liberty, Victory, and T2 merchant ships all belonged to the War Shipping Administration. The Greek government intervened, being a time that Greece had a lot of crews but few ships to man, and came to an agreement with the Truman administration to be an intermediary. The ship is then torched apart at low tide, chunk by chunk, with cut sections then dragged up the beach to allow the next chunk to be torched off. Unless prohibited by the government, shipbreakers in the USA had an option of not scrapping the ship at all and trying to resell it intact. C3-Schiff | In 1985, a “domestic only” scrap auction failed. Problems started when it was broken, shaken, ripped, or otherwise disturbed. Several months later, this company solicited an offer of $1,000,000 to the government to cancel the “domestic only” rule, which was accepted. It is also time-intensive and only suitable for shipbreakers with low labor cost. Decommissioned in 1959, this WWII escort ship was scrapped by Levin Metals in California in 1974. (The SB2A Buccaneer was the worst US Navy airplane of WWII. It is also used at Aliaga, Turkey and shipbreakers in Bangladesh and China. A pump off an obscure fuel barge sold just as well as one off a famous battleship. Nationally, the average construction time was 42 days and by 1943, three Liberty Ships were being completed each day. (The WWII aircraft carrier USS Cabot (CVL-28) being scrapped via the basin method in 2002.). ( Log Out /  All needed support from SZhD, the USSR’s national railroad. This notice about the ex-USS Coral Sea (CV-43), a WWII aircraft carrier, warns of tributlytin oxide in the exterior hull paint. April 1941 fand die Kiellegung des ersten Ocean-Neubaus, der Ocean Vanguard statt, deren Taufe am 15. WWII sailors called these men “Asbestos Joes”. After fleeing the mainland for Taiwan, the ROCN became a virtual “American echo”, from top to bottom ex-US Navy WWII ships. Here, the US Navy periodically (every 3 years) considered if inactive warships still had any realistic possibility of future use. However, the U.S Maritime Commission adjusted the design to accommodate U.S shipbuilding standards and account for a number of factors including missing resources and the need to build as quickly and cheaply as possible. The war ship docked on South Street looks like any other, but the S.S. John W. Brown is both floating and living history, and it’s one of only two Liberty Ships left in the world. Unknown Liberty ship. The problem was that is was necessary to build merchant ships faster than the German Navy submarines could sink them, in order to supply the United Kingdom and sustain its war effort. However in the past I have described how WWII warships were preserved, how they were modernized, and how they were transferred between countries. Starting in the 1970s, the remaining ones in use were no longer profitable to run. A fascinating article about an oft-overlooked topic, greatly appreciated! Ships Alphabetical list of Liberty Ships Home. Only one of the remaining MARAD ready reserve WWII Victorys, S.S. Manderson Victory, was still in shape enough to even be considered. Something like 400-500 Liberty ships served under Greek interest, though rarely the Greek flag. The construction process … This section of List of Liberty ships is a sortable list of Liberty ships—cargo ships built in the United States during World War II—with names beginning with A through F. See also: List of Liberty ships: G-Je List of Liberty ships: Je-L List of Liberty ships: M-R List of Liberty ships: S-Z The yellow tackle block at lower left will be used to beach it. EXCELLENT site you have here. To this, some items including the mothball fleet’s alarms and fire extinguishers, still aboard during bidding would be removed after the auction. In 1967 USS Liberty was massively damaged by Israeli warships. Liberty Ships were based on a British design that was adapted by the US. Each could carry 10,800 deadweight tons (the weight of cargo a ship can carry) or 4,380 net tons (the amount of space available for cargo and passengers). Over time, the ships were deemed too slow and small, so a new line of ships were built, named Victory ships. (1970s Boston Metals ad for a winch off USS Liberty.). As a random example, the above photo from 2004 is the mess deck of the ex-USNS General Nelson M. Walker (T-AP-125) a WWII troopship untouched since 1968. Joffe was a smaller operation on the west coast. The ships had a range of 17,000 miles (27,000 kilometers). It was scrapped by Boston Metals in Baltimore. Copper was the most valuable metal of all. MARAD and bidders negotiated what the true expense of safely and legally scrapping the ship would be (the “cost”), and another flat sum (the “+”) substituted for what would profit in a normal transaction. After WWII “hot spots” for warship scrapping moved around, seeking lower labor costs, less regulation, high local demand for metal, and low taxation. In kalten Gewässern wurde die Schweißnahtumgebung spröde und innerhalb von zehn Jahren sanken etwa hundert Schiffe aufgrund von Sprödbrüchen. Die Besatzungen konnten ohne Schwierigkeiten bei der Handhabung von einem Schiff zum anderen wechseln. Thanks for writing this; even though you thought it was not WWII after WWII regular fare, it was still a great read. C2-Schiff | ), (A 1947 WAA ad for surplus WWII medium landing ships. Surprisingly, the Bogue class escort carriers (CVE) were designed from the start during WWII to be converted into merchants after peace came, if so desired. This is probably the most efficient method and was (and still is) very widely used in the USA to scrap WWII warships. Certain premiums might be had for a HMS type called maraging (steel with elevated nickel content, such as the armor of WWII battleships and cruisers). Lipsett, a subsidiary of the then-powerful Luria company, protested that all the paperwork was in order and they had every right to break up WWII battleships in Newark. It was uncommon but not unheard of for a ship to need a replacement anchor in its lifetime. They used a 2,500 horsepower steam engine to push them through the water at 11 knots (approximately 12.5 miles per hour). The US Navy was hesitant to release full blueprints of the ship, slowing progress. For shipbreakers, they turned into a gold mine. T1-Tanker | (The ex-USS Orion (AS-18) was shopped around in the early 2000s but the government could not find any interested American shipbreaker, even at an asking price of $1. So maybe this will be of interest. Here the condemned WWII warship was put into drydock, then deconstructed from the top down. Media in category "Liberty ships" The following 120 files are in this category, out of 120 total. This partially coincided with the mid-1970s steel price surge and shipbreakers lucky enough to capitalize made a lot of money. The Taiwanese navy never operated this ship nor any sister ships, but none the less the WWII oiler was sold to a Taiwanese scrapper in 1983 simply for the best price. Here is a YouTube video of the conversion. A new category, especially for west coast mothballed ships, was “bio-contaminants”. Zuvor war der Frachter ab 1988 in Baltimore als Ersatzteilspender verwendet worden. Later Spain, Italy, and Taiwan; then later still India; and then now today – with the WWII generation of ships gone – China and Bangladesh. Post-WWII shipbreakers considered this especially obnoxious as the filaments were hidden to bid surveyors and not discovered until scrapping was underway. Asbestos remediation costs climbed well over $1 million. MARAD got paid either way. Perhaps more thought will go into future designs on how these problems can be addressed at the design stage. Sadly it will probably be instead remembered as the rusted ship which spent 64 consecutive years in mothballs. 14 Liberty Ships were launched in the United States; they were to be transferred to the United Kingdom via the Lend-Lease program. It was simply byproduct of a scrapped WWII warship: wood, canvas, glass, bakelite (an early plastic), rope, firebrick, life vests, rubber, mineral wool, tar, and so on. As they are also needed for cargo lines and navies to maintain active ships, they are often booked months in advance. It decommissioned on 30 April 1990. All of the onetime big players: Lipsett, Joffe, Boston Metals, Andy International, Esco; are either closed down or bankrupt years ago now. This was then wrapped with 50% asbestos felt, in turn wrapped with a retainer fabric which was stiffened and painted. The USA built 1,052 big LSTs during WWII. Others including the sonar system, mooring lines, and pier electricity connections, would be removed by Levin at their expense but then returned intact to the government without compensation. (The huge electric motor aboard USS Chinquapin (AN-17). Mariner-Klasse | ), (Power tooling aboard USS Vulcan (AR-5). USS Sabine is an example. The contract is specifically worded that the whole ship, and everything in it, must be scrapped. Acquisition, a holding company incorporated in Nevada but operating in New York. In eerste instantie werd deze EC2-S-AP1 genoemd, waarbij EC2 stond voor Emergency Cargo, type 2, S voor stoomvoortstuwing met één schroef (EC2-S-C1 was de aanduiding van het liberty-ontwerp). Below is the 2011 contract for the ex-USS Bolster (ARS-38), a WWII salvage ship. Non-ferrous metals made up a tiny percentage of a WWII warship by weight, but were infinitely more valuable and shipbreakers often removed them as soon as possible. Sheet asbestos could be laid anywhere fireproofing was required. (The WWII cruiser Kirov is less famous than the 1980s atomic-powered namesake. Needless to say nobody involved looked good. It was also just viewed as unavoidable. Now we have the extraordinary situation where post WW2 and Cold War US ships like, for example the former USS Enterprise is sitting idle waiting for it’s ultimate doomed fate. It was scrapped in Taiwan in 1974.). As the war progressed, the ships were also utilized as troop transports in the convoys. The C1-MAV-1 was a War Shipping Administration diesel-powered merchant of which 215 were built during WWII. Some of these countries – Myanmar and Indonesia in particular – periodically fell in & out of favor with the USA but still needed spare parts. I know about the asbestos, the PCBs and residual fuels. It led to a moratorium on exporting US Navy hulks. Die Kessel der in Kanada gebauten Schiffe der Baureihe wurden mit Kohle befeuert, die in den USA gebauten mit Öl. In 2017 it exited its last operation at the 1940s yard, a barge-building division, but as of 2020 is still involved in the maritime industry. DRMS sold American WWII warships of all natures but primarily combatants like battleships, submarines, cruisers, aircraft carriers, and destroyers. Hello, I work for the EPA and we’re sorting trough a shipbreaking yard in the Southeast. USS Chesterfield County (LST-551) fought in WWII and later the Vietnam War. However, the U.S Maritime Commission adjusted the design to accommodate U.S shipbuilding standards and account for a number of factors including missing resources and the need to build as quickly and cheaply as possible. Asbestos abatement is incredibly expensive and usually the biggest profit-killer with scrapping WWII warships. The costings to have this vessel reclaimed are unbelievably astronomical. Das Schiff wurde in Hellas Liberty umbenannt und wurde von 2009 bis Juni 2010 restauriert und ist heute im Hellas Liberty Museum im Hafen von Piräus zu sehen. It was highly successful in scrapping the earliest postwar discards, and in 1948 also spun off Zidell Valve, an early specialist company of saleables taken off WWII ships. Number 2 was steel too thin or small to be HMS. You may not use more than a few paragraphs without permission. Erst in der Nachkriegszeit gelang es, die Schweißtechnologie so zu entwickeln, dass auch die Nahtumgebung eine dem verwendeten Stahlmaterial entsprechende Zähigkeit aufwies. Liberty Ships were born in 1941 out of a necessity for cargo ships that could be built quickly during WWII and were originally designed by the British. Thanks. (November 1971 ad from Boston Metals and the ship mentioned, USS Chesterfield County (LST-551) in France during WWII.). On WWII medium landing ships, a pair of anchors designed to dig into the seafloor were dropped from the stern transom as the LSM approached the invasion beach, with the chains allowed to play out. Naturally the WWII Liberty and Victory Ships described later below were suitable (they were never warships to begin with). Above is one such item. (The WWII cruiser USS Baltimore (CA-68) being scrapped by Zidell in 1972.). It is a temperature insulator. It also dealt ashore kit like staff cars and pier cranes. The were bigger, faster (15 kts) and more suitable to post-WWII use, either government or commercial. The peak came in 1949 when 580,000 tons of steel were recovered from WWII warships. If prices dipped 50% or 60% in the meantime, it was a disaster. Die Gruppe unter der Leitung von Robert Cyril Thompson führte Pläne einer vereinfachten Version des 1939 bei Joseph L. Thompson and Sons in Sunderland gebauten 10.000 Ladetonnen-Trampdampfers Dorington Court mit sich und überzeugte Admiral Emory Scott Land, den Präsidenten der United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM), dass der zwar langsame, aber einfach konstruierte und vor allem schnell zu bauende Trampdampferentwurf in der gegebenen Situation einer höherwertigen, aber komplizierteren Konstruktion vorzuziehen sei. Zu besichtigen ist das Schiff an Pier 45 in San Francisco (Kalifornien), wenn es nicht gerade auf seiner Fahrt ist, die es zweimal im Jahr um die Bucht von San Francisco führt. (The ex-USS Donner (LSD-20) being scrapped at Brownsville in 2005. Cliffs Victory 1951 – 1985. Die britische Regierung sandte daher im September 1940 eine Arbeitsgruppe (die British Merchant Shipbuilding Mission) in die Vereinigten Staaten und nach Kanada, um ein Frachtschiffnotbauprogramm auf den Weg zu bringen. Den Rekord hielt die Robert E. Peary: Von der Kiellegung bis zum Stapellauf wurden nur vier Tage und 15,5 Stunden benötigt. It decommissioned in 1990 and had asbestos, lead paint, PCBs, and hydrocarbon residue.) While cosmetics were not a determining factor of the 1990 – 1991 sealift, that probably didn’t impress the team much. I believe the newer carriers will make this task easier. Dunnage was the last category. Over a 3½ year span, work started and stopped several times. The circus at Alang, India involving the ex-USS Bennington (described later below) led to a 1998 moratorium on the USA exporting decommissioned WWII warships to Asia. But it was not. Just as an example, the government spent nearly a million dollars on a Cost+ contract to get rid of the ex-USS Bolster (ARS-38) and ex-USS Reclaimer (ARS-42) in 2011 – 2012. Jan 21, 2019 - Ships of EC2 design, US Maritime Commission. Thompson & Sons of Sunderland, England. Numbering 2,710, they were all mass-produced in less than five years. Being a navy person (Aussie), the scrapping of these vessels is always met with a tear. This page lists certain saleables guaranteed to still be aboard, a warning that fuel is still aboard, and certain GFE (government-furnished equipment) notes. This was most desirable. These vessels became widely known as the Liberty-type ships. But that city was redeveloping the waterfront for postwar use. WAA was abolished in June 1949. It was scrapped in 1976. It drifted away in the Atlantic (with Lipsett employees aboard) for three days until a US Coast Guard plane found it and the tow could be recovered. The non-watertight door is dunnage. 1965 VIKING LIBERTY, Viking Shpg.Co, Liberian flag (Pacific SS Agency, NY) 21.1.66 Aground Trinidad, refloated but CTL. Scrapping began in early 1995. She had retained enough of her Pearl Harbor looks, that it made me sad she was never maintained as a museum ship and towed back to Hawaii to her old berth at Pearl harbor, and kept as a museum display. Challenges 2016, 7, 20 3 of 8 An Investigation requested by the U.S. Coast Guard showed that the fracture originated at a defective weld. Die Patrick Henry brachte im Laufe des Kriegs 110.000 Tonnen Fracht in die Häfen der Welt und legte dabei eine Strecke von 90.000 Seemeilen zurück. After this, scrapping resumes going fore-to-aft. The War Assets Administration (WAA) was created in 1946 by President Truman to streamline efforts of various agencies: the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (a repurposed New Deal-era governmental body); the Surplus Board; and others. The 11½ kts LSTs were maybe not perfect merchant ships, but for limited budget cargo lines they were an option. Sailing ship sails in front of Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, New York, New York USA. This Clemson class destroyer was discarded by Canada in 1945 and sold to Boston Metals. Der verfahrensbedingt hohe Stickstoffgehalt förderte die Neigung zu Sprödbrüchen. A bigger problem was WWII warships retained in use by the Cold War-era US Navy. Invariably some percentage of the ship is lost in the process. In the early years after WWII, shipbreakers would cut this into manageable sizes, compress and bale it, and ship it to steel mills that way. (USS Paiute (ATF-159) was a WWII Abnaki class fleet tug. In 1973 the ex-USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) almost suffered the same fate. A Liberty ship was 441 feet long and 56 feet wide, with five holds that could accommodate over 9,000 tons of cargo. The industry was aided by a hungry steel appetite from Taiwanese factories, low labor costs, and a cooperative government. If no customers were forthcoming after a while, the ship could still be scrapped then anyways. More than two-thirds of all cargo leaving the U.S. was carried by these ships; among other items, the ships hauled fuel, bullets, bandages, k-rations, and blankets to war theaters overseas. Hundreds in various mods were built during WWII. This was not uncommon, and if no buyer came forward Boston Metals just scrapped it altogether. One work team got lost for hours deep below decks as torching continued above them. (1968 ad from Boston Metals for valves off WWII T2 tankers.). It was mothballed after WWII and auctioned for scrap in 1974, however it was not scrapped and somehow ended up in Canada where it was still afloat in the late 2000s.) Thirteen months later, MARAD gave up and the ex-USS Ashtabula was used as a target for a naval exercise. As decades went on after WWII, this was more and more common. Either way there wasn’t much creativity. Certain discarded US Navy types, like oilers, stores ships, and rescue tugs were readily convertible. Basically, Liberty Ships were painted in Measure 14, overall 5-O Ocean Gray...in FS #, that equates to 35164. The original estimate (six years ago) was $500 million max over 5-9 years. The ships had a range of 17,000 miles. 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