Thirdly, labelling theory is supposed to cover all criminal activity and has an effect on everyone irrespective of their race, social class, sex and age (Becker, 1963). The sixties were a time of considerable disturbance in the United States, and the labeling perspective challenged main­ stream criminology and paralleled the attack on predominant social Why labeling a person "black," "rich," or "smart" makes it so. Labeling theory, sometimes called "the societal reaction perspec­ tive," was lauded as a new perspective in criminology in the 1960's (Hagan, 1987). As applied to alcoholism, the labeling theory of deviance contends that being labeled by others as an alcoholic results in the acceptance of self-labels, and a self-fulfilling prophecy of alcoholic behavior. Unfortunately it was not specified exactly how each of these factors altered the effect labeling theory had on the study subjects. Contributing to this relationship is the increased and disproportionate use of exclusionary discipline, particularly among ethno-racial minorities. The labeled individual might become more offensive towards the people who labeled […] ... and lifetime alcohol problems, with women and those acknowledging fewer problems more likely to be drinking moderately. On the other hand, the Critical Race Theory refers to a broad social scientific approach to the study of race, racism, and society. In a study of drunk drivers it was concluded that socioeconomic status, race, sex, and age can indeed influence whether labeling theory has an effect on people. Exclusionary discipline is correlated with negative life outcomes however; scholars have yet to examine the impact of school discipline on behavioral outcomes across race and ethnicity. With the Labeling Theory, I will be able to gather information on how the media instills an image in the public’s mind for the constant falsification of the Islamic culture. Labeling in the Classroom, 7 secondary deviance: the reaction society has to the individual now identified as being a criminal (Lilly, Cully, & Ball, 2007). Other criminologists have been doubtful of this part of the theory and hold that a person’s race, social class and so on do have an effect. Intersectionality is a feminist sociological theory first highlighted by leading critical theorist thinker Kimberlé Crenshaw (1989). Labeling Theory and Symbolic Interaction Theory C. Becker’s Labeling Theory Tannenbaum, Lemert, and Kitsuse had discussed important concepts in labeling and stigmatization, but the labeling approach was more systematically refined with the work of Becker (1963) on societal “outsiders.” If you lined up 1000 randomly selected people from across the earth, none of them would share the exact same skin tone. Theory suggest that, people tend to act and behave as they are labeled by other people. Labeling theory view deviance from symbolic interaction and conflict perspective. When an individual in the society is labelled as criminal, it compels him to commit more crimes. It is this latter form of deviance that enabled Labeling theory to gain such immense popularity in the 1960’s, forcing criminologists to reconsider how large a part The theory proposes that different biological, social, and cultural factors, such as as gender, race, and class, do not operate in isolation of one antoher. Labeling theory posits that self-identity and the behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.